Innovators in the pharmaceutical industry are constantly developing ways to improve the process of conducting clinical trials and managing research sites. Amidst other alternatives, outsourcing various trial operations to a specialized service provider, such as site management organizations (SMOs), has emerged as a viable option for various developers. The advantages of engaging such specialized service providers are numerous and enable sponsors to meet their clinical research timelines. In addition, SMOs can facilitate rapid patient recruitment, reduce study timelines, and manage the entire clinical trial processes and administrative work for their clients. Moreover, drug / medical device developers, and even the contract research organizations (CROs), can employ the therapeutic and operational expertise, global site networks and well-established processes and tools offered by SMOs in order to carry out their clinical research and site management activities in a cost and time-efficient manner.